Hypertension or high blood pressure is a common medical condition caused by the high long term force of blood against artery walls that causes several heart problems. Hypertensive heart disease that is caused by this is one of the top causes of death among men and women both.
What is Blood Pressure?
The blood pressure is the amount of blood pumped by the heart as well as the resistance faced by blood while passing through the arteries. More is the blood pumped and narrower the arteries, higher is the blood pressure. There are two numbers given in the blood pressure reading:
- Systolic Pressure: The higher or upper number is the pressure of arteries when the heart is beating.
- Diastolic Pressure: The lower or the second number is the pressure in the coronary arteries during the gaps between the beats.
A normal blood pressure number of a person should be 120/80 mmHg.
What is Hypertension or High Blood Pressure?
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a higher than normal blood pressure. It is diagnosed when you have a consistent higher blood pressure than normal throughout the day. There are several health problems associated with this diagnosis. It may even cause left ventricular hypertrophy which refers to the thickening of heart muscles resulting in lesser relaxation of the heart between the beats.
What are the various High Blood Pressure Symptoms?
Usually there are no symptoms or signs of high blood pressure in a person. It can even be diagnosed during the routine doctor appointment. However, there are certain non specific symptoms that may be taken care of. These are:
- Shortness of breath
- Swelling in ankles, abdomen and feet
- Irregular pulse
What are the causes of high blood pressure?
There are many underlying causes of high blood pressure in an individual. They can be broadly classified as follows:
- Essential or primary hypertension: This type of high blood pressure has no identifiable cause. It mostly develops in a person gradually over the years. It is the cause in 95% of a hypertensive person.
- Secondary Hypertension: This high blood pressure condition develops due to some underlying condition. It mostly appears suddenly and causes higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. There are several conditions and medications that can be attributed to being the major causes of this condition.
- Kidney diseases: kidney artery blockage
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Tumors in the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma)
- Thyroid issues
- Certain congenital defects in the heart blood vessels
- Medications like over-the-counter pain relievers, cold remedies, birth control pills, decongestants and many other prescription drugs
- Certain illegal drugs like amphetamines and cocaine
What is the right treatment for high blood pressure?
One of the best ways of controlling and treating high blood pressure is through positive changes in the lifestyle. This includes having a less salty heart healthy diet, physical activity, maintaining the right body weight and limiting the alcohol intake. However, sometimes, lifestyle changes are not enough. Medications are needed and prescribed for lowering the blood pressure. These include diuretics, calcium channel blockers and ACE/ARB. In order to get further information regarding high blood pressure and heart diseases associated with it, you can consult the most experienced cardiologists Hospitals in Delhi/NCR.